Viet Nam

Viet Nam is the fourth largest contributor to marine plastic pollution globally. Increased domestic consumption coupled with higher growth of manufacturing and service sector has led to higher waste generation.


Causes and challenges

There is extensive leakage of plastic waste into water and waste water in Viet Nam, ultimately leading to marine litter and plastic pollution. This is due to uncollected waste and the current waste collection, transportation and disposal practices.

Viet Nam accounts for 0.28 – 0.73 million tonnes per year of marine plastic leakage. The main sources of plastic marine debris consist of widely used plastic products and mismanaged municipal solid waste.Ha Long bay is a prominent natural heritage site, and Cat Ba is a world biosphere reserve. Both these areas have unique marine ecosystems which are extensively impacted by plastic pollution.

Waste generation starts from the point of consumption and extends to its collection and disposal.The total estimated municipal solid waste (MSW) generation in Viet Nam is about 19 million tonnes per year (2015). The average waste generated per capita is about 1.20 kg/person/day. The unmanaged plastic waste component of MSW during its collection, transportation & disposal gets leaked into the ocean.

Ways forward

Viet Nam has basic policies, strategies and action plans – including an environmental regulatory framework – to address requirements for waste management. Viet Nam intends to pursue waste reduction and waste minimization, leading to “Zero Waste”. There are plans to increase recycling rates, promote resource efficiency and green the supply chain. Viet Nam has committed to address marine litter and plastic pollution and achieve SDG 14, target 14.1. As part of this commitment, Viet Nam has participated in the UN Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio +20) and other multilateral and intergovernmental fora on the protection of marine environment, and the prevention and reduction of marine debris.

Opportunities for further action include: Enhancing financial resources and technical capacities for sustainable solid waste management; translating national waste management targets into strategies and action plans; designing and implementing a specific packaging waste directive or law, and; applying Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) for packaging waste.

Download SEA circular country profile for Viet Nam for more information

News

SEA circular report launch: Consumers and business concerned about plastic waste but expect governments to do more

22 June 2020

UNEP and FIA have released a regional survey of consumers and food and beverage businesses across South-East Asia that shows a significant disconnect between expectation and action on reducing plastic waste.

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Plastic use rising in SEA due to COVID-19

13 April 2020

13 April 2020, Bangkok, Thailand: Single-use plastic bags are making a comeback as a result of the coronavirus outbreak. After their use was restricted at the start of the year, plastic bags can once again be seen littering the st

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Supermarkets in Ho Chi Minh City to be free of plastic bags by the end of this year

3 April 2020

3 April 2020, HCMC, Viet Nam: All supermarkets, trade centres, convenience stories, and bookstores in Ho Chi Minh City are striving to replace plastic bags with environmentally friendly options by the end of this year. This move i

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Events

VIRTUAL REPORT LAUNCH – Perceptions on plastic waste: Insights, interventions and incentives to action from businesses and consumers in South-East Asia

23 June 2020 - 3-4pm (BKK)  8-9am (UTC)

Join UNEP and FIA for a virtual report launch. All participants are warmly invited to join on MS Teams. Find out how perceptions of plastic waste are shaping the plastic pollution challenges and solutions in South-East Asia.

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South-East Asia marine litter and plastic circular economy initiatives coordination workshop

9 March 2020

This series of workshops aims to coordinate relevant projects in SEA on marine litter and plastics circular economy, synergize activities and avoid overlaps.

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SEA of Solutions 2019 – Partnership week for marine plastic pollution prevention

11-14 November 2019

SEA of Solutions 2019 is bringing together governments, business leaders, scientists, UN agencies and community groups, to dialogue on solutions for marine plastic pollution.

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